Here’s what you need to know about the electric powertrain how and why it is making a surge in the automobile industries. Since electric vehicles increasing their popularity and are rapidly evolving, therefore demand for the use of electric powertrain is also increasing. Electric vehicles are eco-friendly and sustainable to use, the government is supporting the service providers and such automobile industries with its favorable policies. The growing concern for environmental pollution and the decline in fossil fuel is increasing the demand for electric vehicles and in turn Electric Powertrain. The manufacturer of the electric powertrain is putting its efforts for the production of cost-effective and efficient battery system so as to improve the performance.
What is Electric Powertrain?
Electric Powertrains are a set of components that are installed in an electric vehicle that generates power to drive that vehicle. Compared to internal combustion engines, electric powertrain comprises a fewer number of components.
Components of Electric Powertrain
The basic core components of Electric Powertrain are battery pack, DC-AC converter, electric motor, onboard charger. Functions that each component perform:
- Battery pack- it consists of a pack of lithium-ion cells that store energy to run the vehicle.
- DC-AC converter- it converts the DC supplied by battery into AC. This AC is then supplied to the electric motor.
- Electric motor- electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy by the motor.
- Onboard charger- this receives AC from charge-port and convert into DC to store it in the battery.
Apart from the core parts, the electric powertrain has hardware and software. Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are software programs that are integrated into electric powertrain which exchange data and process it. There are many small ECUs that carry out a specific function in the system. Some of them are as follows:
- Battery management system - it is responsible for monitoring and maintaining the proper state of the battery and takes care of efficiencies of battery.
- Thermal management system (BMS) – maintains the optimum temperature in the electric powertrain so that all the components operate properly.
- Body control module (BCM) - it is responsible for controlling the functions of other electronic accessories like power windows, vehicle access control, mirror, etc.
Types of electric vehicles based on the use of Electric Powertrain
Depending on type Electric Powertrain used, Electric vehicles are categorized into four.
- Battery-powered electric vehicle (BEV) - this type of vehicles simply depends on battery and motor as the source of power. Since there is no emission and hence considered as eco-friendly. But the number battery pack in the Electric Powertrain is more. The driving system is motor thus they are simpler than other electric vehicles.
- Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) - in this type of vehicle, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. The energy is for driving the vehicle is generated through hydrogen-oxygen reactions.
- Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) – it is a type of hybrid vehicle and can be charged by any external sources. When the battery gets exhausted, it switches to engine driving.
- Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) – these vehicles are called so because it can use two or more sources for power generation. The driving force is mainly acquired by motor and engines but alternatively, fuel engines and a combination of gasoline and diesel can also be used.
Trends and Technology used in Electric Powertrain
Nowadays the lithium batteries are provided with electric double-layered capacitors that are used in the Electric Powertrains. This addition of the capacitor is expected to enhance the lifespan of the battery and will reduce the environmental issues. It also advances the energy density of the lithium-ion battery. Since electric vehicles installed with Electric Powertrain, it mainly depends on the battery and motor. Thus improvement in the battery management and cooling system will result in the advancement in the Electric Powertrain.
Advantages of using Electric Powertrain
The service of Electric vehicles mainly depends on the performance of Electric Powertrain. These vehicles are eco-friendly, produce less noise, and no emission of pollutants. So it is considered to have minimal impact on the environment and is sustainable to use. Electric Powertrains are much better than internal combustion engines. The application of Electric Powertrain is decreasing the dependency on fossil fuel for transport services.
The high cost of the electrical components is a major challenge for Electric Powertrain. There is a lack of standardized charging infrastructure in many of the countries. The popularity of electric vehicles is growing and yet has not accomplished much attention. The major factor is the cost of electric vehicles. At the same time, there are strict regulations for the installation of charging stations is putting an extra challenge for the service owner. Most of the users are concerned with the mileage given by vehicles in a single charge as it cannot run for longer distances.
The electric powertrain Market has been witnessing rapid growth due to the increasing demand for electric vehicles. People are becoming more concerned about environmental pollution. Awareness among people tending them to opt for electric vehicles. In fact, governments of many developed and developing countries are providing favorable policies to encourage the service provider to manufacture and sell electric vehicles. These are the driving factors for the increasing popularity and demand for electric powertrain Market.
But the strict rules for the installation of charging stations are limiting its growth. Hopefully, some more flexible rules will be implemented by the governments in the coming years. The rising growth of logistics shared mobility, and e-commerce will also drive the electric powertrain Market in the coming years.