Years ago negative interest rates were unheard of. Modeling assumptions (often purposely) excluded them due to their extremely low probability, it simply seemed counter intuitive that they could even be present in a market, and certainly if they did they seemed as if they’d be a rare blip and not a prolonged market environment.

Fast forward to today, and negative rates are rampant across the Euro Zone and continue to be a critically important issue in global finance. While the Bank of England has